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Il formaggio e i vermi Il cosmo di un mugnaio del '500 (EPUB)


No metaphysical speculation to explain them any than we need to posit the soul to explain the ubiuity of language or music in human cultures Human brains are largely similar and humans are biologically and historically confronted with similar sets of compelling concerns such as maturation reproduction and the deaths of riends and amily No urther explanation is necessary Because Ginzburg insists that all religious A Look Over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency forms must be the result of diffusion he would rather impute an invisible structure to serve at its base than to take Menocchio at his word Iind that a bizarre and uncompelling approach and believe it has been inadeuately worked out or justified I must reject it because he ultimately argues or it on the basis of his theoretical commitments and assumptions not with the historical acts and statements before him As with language culture offers to the individual a horizon of latent possibilities a Ravishing Ruby flexible and invisible cage in which he can exercise his own conditional libertyLargely a detective endeavor of sorts with leanings towards literary analysis The work itself is an account of a heresy trial in early modern Italy While theate of the miller might be grim this book also offers a startling optimism As Terry Eagleton once noted the act that we send our youth to universities where they have access to the revolutionary sway of ideas there s always hope or a liberated uture Ginzburg dazzles the reader with his erudition his examination of the 16C testimony where a bit of a loud mouth reethinking miller Old Yeller finds himself in ecclesiastic court which wasn t uite Toruemada s Inuisition yet it was during the Counter Reformation and that didn t bode well The miller wanted an audience until he saw that his neck was on the line His arrogant cosmology is ratherascinating Ginzburg s parsing of the books the miller had read and juxtaposing such with his testimony is rather exciting As a medievalist I run across this book all the time which is Flying by the Seat of My Pants: Flight Attendant Adventures on a Wing and a Prayer funny considering it s not really a medieval book it s Renaissanceearly modern It s made a huge splash in The Study of Old Things though so I m not surprised itinally showed up in a class of mine on the reading listSo the gist of the story and it really does read like a story which is kind of neat is Ginzburg Lincoln: An Illustrated Biography following the trials by the inuisition no not the one you didn t expect another one of a milleror being well batshit crazy about his theology The title comes On Being Human: Reflections on Life and Living from this miller s idea of the beginning of the universe that it kind of curdled like cheese into being and the angels came out of it like wormsYeah It s gross And oddAnd a lot of the other ideas of the miller Domenico Scandella aka Menocchio are also odd and they eventually got him burnt Omg spoiler alert I know What Ginzburg is doing and then his translators the Tedeschis is taking the handful of sources we have that document Menocchio s trials andilling in the blanks to create a coherent story It s microcosm history and it s hard to categorize because Ginzburg is taking a lot of liberties in saying what people were thinking and Frommers Irreverent Guide to Walt Disney World feeling when all we have is what they said So it s not straight up history but then it s notiction either because we really do have all of these documents left behind evidenced in the endnotes which you can skip reading and still understand what s going on he wrote it that way actually and has no numbers anywhere which took some getting used toWhat comes out of this is an interesting story about a crazy miller who didn t know when to shut up so I recommend it or that The historian in me just can t uite handle the leaps Ginzburg makes rom the available evidence though so I m really unsure if I will hang on to it this guy goes on or 150 pages about ALL the possible explanations or this random peasant thinking that the world was Who's There on Halloween? formedrom chaos like the way cheese coagulates then he s like the collective unconscious is an unacceptable explanation like wtf this whole book is dumb and this guy wasted his time writing it and the translators wasted their time translating it it s literally written like well the miller may have gotten his ideas rom THIS SMALL FAR OFF CHRISTIAN EXTREMIST GROUP because their thoughts line up so well but actually it s completely IMPOSSIBLE FOR HIM TO HAVE EVER BEEN IN CONTACT WITH THEM DURING THIS ERA like seriously SHUT UP u dragged it Fantastic Study Based On Trial Records based on trial records a sixteenth century Italian miller charged with heresy The book offers glimpse into an alternative and generally unheard rom world that is Hip Pocket Sleaze: The Lurid World of Vintage Adult Paperbacks full of so much imagination on the part of the miller that it should put many aiction writer to shameThat really is its strength and virtue to be a reminder that the masses of people that now we label as Lutheran Catholic or Anabaptist were a mess of individuals While the beliefs of the hierarchies can be listed and referenced to published works the actual beliefs of their Mookie: Life, Baseball, and the '86 Mets followers remain unknown unless they happened to runoul of the heresy courts in one jurisdiction or another even then the inuisitor might be looking to sueeze them into some known category of schismatic or other Here by contrast are an individuals beliefs Messy uninfluential but individual They offer as much of a clue as what people actually believed as the writings of a Luther or Zwingli and an insight with its images of mouldy cheese and God as master builder with sub contracted angels creating the world into just how divergent the reception of ideas could be We should not let the long tradition of smearing practicing Catholics as the brainwashed servants of a threatening oreign power in which sensationalist and hyperbolic depictions of the Roman Inuisition of a threatening oreign power in which sensationalist and hyperbolic depictions of the Roman Inuisition a part Clawback from identifying the Catholic Church of the late sixteenth centuryor what it was a repressive cruel and in modern terms ussily anal retentive organization No justification can or should be sought or torture Sugar in the Raw: Voices of Young Black Girls in America for the wracking of Menocchio and countless others on the ropes of the strappado or in thelames of the auto da Cooking for Company f Nor will excuses be made here on the basis of torture s application in a minority of cases or of the historical and sadly contemporary commonplaceness of the practice The human scream cuts readily through such objections The transcript of Menocchio s agonies reads Oh Jesus oh Jesus oh poor me oh poor me It is nevertheless the case that popular visions of pits and pendulums of sadistic vicars gleefully condemning Christ to die as in Ivan Karamazov samous parable are not only wrong but do a disservice to the victims Menocchio among them of what was in Empire of Sin fact a calculating rational blandly bureaucratic office The Inuisition targeted Menocchio notor arbitrary or merely punitive purposes but because they rightly ascertained the very real threat he posed to Catholic hegemony in the hills of Friuli Menocchio s heresies were especially Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China flamboyant iterations of the largely oral culture of the peasantry rooted in a deep literalism of religious interpretation which is not to say non interpretation that bore explosive political potential Carlo Ginzburg is thus at pains at several points in The Cheese and the Worms to illustrate Menocchio s representativeness of the culture around him More precisely Ginzburg claims that by examining the way Menocchio a man of the oral culture interprets or in some cases willfully misreads the books he encounters representatives of the print culture we can thereby discern certain ualities of the oral culture or may do so at least to the degree that the oral culture is extri. The Bible Boccaccio's Decameron Mandeville's Travels and a mysterious book that may have been the Koran And what he read he recast in termsamiliar to him as in his own version of the creation All was chaos that is earth air water and ire were mixed together; and of that bulk a mass ormed just as cheese is made out of milk and worms appeared in it and these were the angelsGinzburg’s influential book has been widely regarded as an early example of the analytic. Cable Chicken, Chicken, Duck! from that of print and to the degree that separate spheres of culture may be defined along certain media Ginzburg makes this case compellingly One way he does so is by pointing to Montereale s seeming tolerance of Menocchio and his ideas without which Menocchio would have been hauled in long before he wasor the Inspirations first time in 1583 and only then after he was ratted on by the village priest Hence Menocchio s popularity with the villagers despite his often despised profession as miller Hence also his election as mayor and one villager s description of him as a man who is everybody sriend Tolerance is not to say acceptance as Menocchio s only confessed ollower in Montereale was an illiterate carpenter named Melchiorre Possibly this is a result of what Ginzburg calls elsewhere in the text one of several channels eeding into a popular current of which so Move Over, Victoria--I Know the Real Secret: Surrendering the Lies That Bind You to the God Who Frees You far very little is knownavoring toleration a Slo Mo! few traces of which can be discerned in the course of the sixteenth century This tolerance of the populace is evidence of a public at sharp odds with the Catholic authorities one that becomes interesting in light of the relative literacy of Montereale and environs Of the eleven books Menocchio certainly read six of them were loaned to himrom Poor Mrs. Rigsby friends certainly notrom his priest which seems to indicate the existence of a network of readers as Ginzburg observes it s astonishing that so much reading went on in this small town in the hills Another tack of Ginzburg s less convincing than the Pirates, Ships, and Sailors first is to searchor similarities between Menocchio s heresies and those of another Italian miller rom a generation prior known as Pighino the at While such similarities do exist eg the emphasis of both heretics on the simplicity of the Gospel their disdain War Made New: Technology, Warfare, and the Course of History: 1500 to Today for Church corruption andor the sacraments these similarities are as easily explained as semi learned peasant distortions of Luther as they are a springing A Boy in Winter forthrom an oral underground The sheer idiosyncrasy of Menocchio s theology and cosmogony are enough to dispel accusations of Lutheranism in his case but the same cannot be said Frost at Midnight for Pighino who inact was denounced as a concubine keeping Lutheran We are therefore left with the lingering possibility that the coexistence of these cases is only a curious coincidence Even so the coincidence itself is striking especially in light of the concrete evidence Ginzburg provides in his reading of the Inuisitional record These records are the Princess Baby, Night-Night foundation of Ginzburg s book They are living documents in that they present a theology that evolves before our eyes in response to the attacks of his interrogator Seeor example Menocchio s distinction between a mortal soul that dies with the body and an immortal spirit that will be reunited with God at the end of time through apocatastasis This distinction is not The Pentagon Papers: Making History at the Washington Post found in the trial records of 1583 or theirst half of those Improbable Destinies: Fate, Chance, and the Future of Evolution from 1599 but under the pressure of the inuisitor Menocchio begins splitting this particular hair On other crucial points though Menocchio remains steadfast as in his bold claim that it s important to love our neighbor than to love God his denial of the divinity of Christ and the apparent pantheism in his statement that everything is God The danger of these beliefs to the power of the Church should they be widely adopted is self explanatory The uestion is whether there was a real risk that they would be and here the evidence is twofold First Menocchio displays through his testimony about several books especially the parascriptural chronicle Il Fioretto della Bibbia a manner of reading that was obviously one sided and arbitrary almost as if he was searchingor confirmation of ideas and convictions that were already On a Cold Road: Tales of Adventure in Canadian Rock firmly entrenched These ideas and convictions or at least the soil in which they grow comerom the oral culture Second the Inuisitor s acrimonious sentence of 1584 emphasizes the sin of Menocchio s decision to share his belief not only with men of religion but also With Simple And Ignorant People simple and ignorant people their salvation at risk The implication of this statement and the cascade of vitriol that ollows it is that the peasantry are susceptible to spiritual seduction than the elite who are armed with their educations The stated cause of this uality is the ostensible stupidity simplicity and ignorance of the peasant mind but this is an evasion by the inuisitor If peasants are in act open to Menocchio s ideas it is not because of their unintelligence per se but because their unintelligence in Inuisitorial eyes leads them to hold common beliefs that is a peasant culture which may then be stoked by Menocchio and brought to light All of which is to say that the Church saw a threat in Menocchio because he

was not an 
not an case and because his beliefs threatened the Inuisition s goal of heretical containment and its emphasis on the value of theological purity and consistency This emphasis in contrast to the localization and syncretism of late medieval Christianity was implicitly a validation of Protestant criticisms of the Church that it practiced sloppy sacerdotalism rather than properly educating its members or or that matter its clergy and was an attempt to rectify these Nini faults This was doneor reasons both moral the genuine desire I Love My Dad (Disney Princess) for spiritual improvement and political the destruction of Protestantism and there is often much overlap between these categories The renewed vigor and conseuent cruelty of the Church during the Counter Reformation meant that barring overly literal counteractuals ie what if Menocchio hadn t run into that tattletale Flight, Vol. 7 flutist in 1598 Menocchio s death at the stake wasor all intents inevitable The immovable object that was the early modern church met the unstoppable orce of Menocchio s endless stream of words earthy evocative by turns strident and simpering and always painfully human even across the chasm of centuries Few of us have the courage or uixotic olly to stare up at an inuisitor asking us to explain ourselves and respond I thought you d never ask For this the miller deserves not just our scholarly attention but our respect and our love This book is so hyped in academic circles that it was perhaps setting itself up as a disappointment before I even cracked it open I m sure or the right type of his This is a microhistory of a sixteenth century Italian miller whose heretical beliefs brought him to the attention of the Inuisition GINZBURG USES THE RECORDS OF HIS uses the records of his to examine his personal theology and cosmology and to examine to what extent we can recover a pre modern popular culture I thought it was a sophisticated attempt at a microhistory than The Return of Martin Guerre Ginzburg approaches his sources with subtlety and with awareness of the dangers of pre conceived notions I particularly appreciated how Ginzburg s critical awareness of the sources contrasted with Menocchio s own sometimes wilful misreadings of the texts he came into contact with That said I m not sure why Ginzburg is so insistent that the peasant culture in which Menocchio lived had strong nonpre Christian elements and why the unorthodox elements of Menocchio s thought were necessarily products of such cultural elements rather than of independent thought in as much as such a thing is possible of course or other influences I m still not sure about his conclusions in as much as they are predicated on the suitability of Menocchio a single and rather eccentric man as a means of investigating Friuli peasantry as a whole I m undecided but I ll be thinking about this one or a while. Case oriented approach known as microhistory In a thoughtful new preface Ginzburg offers his own corollary to Menocchio’s story as he considers the discrepancy between the intentions of the writer and what gets written The Italian miller’s story and Ginzburg’s work continue to resonate with modern readers because they ocus on how oral and written culture are inextricably linked Menocchio’s 500 year old challenge to authority remains evocative and vital tod. Il ormaggio e i vermi Il cosmo di un mugnaio del '500The Cheese and the Worms is a ground breaking expos into the Touch of Enchantment field of microhistory and remains aoundational work When Dads Don't Grow Up for historians today Ginzberg used the story of Menocchio a sixteenth century miller who was twice prosecuted and ultimately condemned by the inuisitionor holding and preaching egregiously heretical beliefs As a miller and a literate man Menocchio had a greater exposure to people and ideas than the average peasant Miles from Kara farmer and apparently also a keen intellect which he used to ponder the world and the Catholic church s teachings Ginzberg uses his story to attempt to reveal what ideas wereloating around in the general peasant population concerning the reformation and Catholic and protestant doctrine The tale Ginzberg weaves has tantalizing possibilities but it suffers Pee Wee Scouts treasury (Pee Wee Scouts, from two generallaws The most grave of which is that he clearly had too much information or a concise paper but ar too little evidence or a satisfying monograph What information Ginzburg mined rom the inuisition records was reduced reused and recycled to the point where the reader inds himself continually double checking his page to make sure he isn t re reading Further making 62 chapters out of 128 pages seems to be little than the classic and transparent undergraduate techniue to ill space In his defense the lack of pages comes not rom a lack of research but rom a limited information pool it seems that too many documents have been lost to time Ginzberg also patents what has become the downfall of microhistories by writing up to chapter 61 on just Menocchio and then in the next to last chapter attempting to explain unconvincingly how this single man illustrates a sampling of the greater picture He attempted to bolster his claim by introducing a new character also a miller but uite rankly it just doesn t cut it In this case Ginzberg s claim seems particularly odd as he built so much of his argument on the act that Menocchio was not representative of the average peasant as he was clearly someone who thought or himself collating authored passages with his own distinctive observations and whimsical notions While this techniue of microhistory is certainly an interesting approach to doing history I remain as of yet unconvinced that it is a wholly viable method because of the problems it creates or historians when they arrive at the end of the book and A treatise on the law of marital rights in Texas find themselvesorced to justify their musings by answering the ever crucial so what actor When Ginzberg ound himself in this said predicament his resolution was to grasp at straws and attempt to make broad claims Lots of Hearts for which his work did not lay the properoundation to support That said as the irst in its ield and as a highly intriguing study about a most interesting man the work merits reading and re reading once Why Diets Make Us Fat: The Unintended Consequences of Our Obsession with Weight Loss for content and a secondor techniue This is an insightful book Don't Hex with Texas for all of us who assume European peasants were illiterate uneducated non thinkingolk Our hero the miller Menocchio could read and write owned a ew books borrowed a ew had read the Decameron and dipped into the Koran and combined the ideas he got Black Women Writers (1950-1980): A Critical Evaluation from books with the oral tradition of 16th century rural Friuli toorm his own slightly odd very creative para Catholic religious notions His discussions of these notions with others brought him to the attention of the local inuisition which uestioned him and decided he wasn t just a heretic but a badass heresiarch He was influencing others and needed to be imprisoned and Pajama Party forever wear a penitential garment After aew years he was released rom prison but he couldn t stop talking and ultimately the cardinal and pope put their red slippers down and insisted he be burned at the stake pronto The reason this book gets assigned in history courses is because of its historiographic interest the overlap between social history and the history of ideas Ginzburg s classic microhistory The Cheese and the Worms begins with a penetrating theoretical essay that sets out at length the necessity of Cheese and the Worms begins with a penetrating theoretical essay that sets out at length the necessity of out historiography with theoretical sophistication informed by recent developments in critical theory in literature and the human sciences Unfortunately his work suffers rom a severe deficiency commonly evidenced by such theorists While his critiue of the naive approach taken by his putative opponents is devastating he utterly ails to apply similarly rigorous critical standards to their own writing Like so many others he instead succumbs to
the intoxication induced 
intoxication induced the wide ree vista he has opened out to champion a revolutionary approach that Bringing the Outside In fails on the level of argumentation and evidence This bad habit clings perniciously to critical theorists and has unfortunately marred the legacy of their collective undertaking I have read many works by Foucaultor example and benefited greatly rom his penetrating analytical powers and his style but many of his actual arguments are actually untenable It is widely known or example that the ship of ools he describes in his study of madness never really existed and that his historical arguments and theories are interesting and even illuminating but generally Close to Hugh false I will confess I do not understand what it is about critical theory that leads so many of its chief proponents to abandon basic standards of reason and evidence It is not theoretically reuired by their own arguments and there is simply no necessity in it One merely need apply the same standards of critiue to oneself that one applies to one s opponent Ginzburg s work is interesting but unpersuasive and the core value I derivedrom it is the human story at its core the story of a stubborn and Women and Self Esteem free thinking Italian in the early modern period who made theatal mistake of speaking truthfully to the Inuisition at the wrong historical moment and largely on the basis of ideas that are widely held today was burned alive This Toy to Toy (Disney/Pixar Toy Story 3) far Ginzburg is on solid ground Unfortunately he refuses to take Ginzburg at his word who repeatedly proclaimed during his trial that he developed his basic ideas himself Rather Ginzburg seeks to reconstruct a nebulous substrate of peasant culture one that can only be indirectly observed and characterized by its effects and products which maintained antiue cosmological traditions resembling the ones Menocchio espoused Perhaps nothing should raise redlags to a scientist of conscience than the positing of an unobserved substrate on the basis of its supposed theoretical necessity We need think no Charity further than the putative luminous ether that was presumed to serve as the medium in which light waves propagate until it was disproved by theindings of Michelson and Morely Like the proponents of the luminous ether Ginzburg does not believe that things can exist unless they are inscribed within some kind of medium That is religious and cosmological similarities may only be explained by diffusion or coincidence I would recommend that he carefully study Maya Deren s Divine Horsemen which meticulously describes a complete and unctional religious system with rituals and a subtending elaborate mythology which was the spontaneous creation of a heterogeneous group of peoples brought to Haiti rom the Catch and Release: Trout Fishing and the Meaning of Life four corners of the earth and which includes key recognizable archetypaligures such as the shining lady the lord of the waters and the trickster igure of the crossroads who mediates between the worlds of the living and the dead It is an empirical act that the human mind carries within itself the capacity to spontaneously create symbols and ideas of certain recognizable types and it reuires. The Cheese and the Worms is an incisive study of popular culture in the sixteenth century as seen through the eyes of one man the miller known as Menocchio who was accused of heresy during the Inuisition and sentenced to death Carlo Ginzburg uses the trial records to illustrate the confusing political and religious conditions of the timeFor a common miller Menocchio was surprisingly literate In his trial testimony he made references to than a dozen books including.

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